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Halogen-free fire retardancy: Overview and new approaches (Part II)

SpecialChem / Apr 2, 2001

Phosphorus-containing refers to a wide range of compounds. We can distinguish halogenated-phosphate and non halogenated-phosphate. Halogenated-phosphate compounds are generally used to decrease the total halogen content. In non halogenated-phosphate, we meet red phosphorus, water-soluble inorganic phosphates, insoluble ammonium phosphate and polyphosphate, organophosphates and phosphonates and phosphine oxide. Monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate acheive good FR properties in a wide range of cellulosic-based materials. The mechanism is a chemical action in the condensed phase. The char formation comes from esterification of hydroxyl groups with the phosphoric acid. Solubility of such additives leads to ageing problems. Red phosphorus is a very efficient flame retardant for oxygenated polymers (PC, PET...) Coated red phosphorus is used commercially to flame-retardant nylon electrical parts. To prevent its ignition in air, red phosphorus is encapsulated in a high content of polymer.

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